# Stand-alone C++ implementation of Phi inverse

The following code first appeared as A literate program to compute the inverse of the normal CDF. See that page for a detailed explanation of the algorithm.

```#include
#include <cmath>
#include <sstream>
#include <iostream>
#include <iomanip>
#include <stdexcept>

double NormalCDFInverse(double p);
double RationalApproximation(double t);
void demo();

double RationalApproximation(double t)
{
// Abramowitz and Stegun formula 26.2.23.
// The absolute value of the error should be less than 4.5 e-4.
double c[] = {2.515517, 0.802853, 0.010328};
double d[] = {1.432788, 0.189269, 0.001308};
return t - ((c[2]*t + c[1])*t + c[0]) /
(((d[2]*t + d[1])*t + d[0])*t + 1.0);
}

double NormalCDFInverse(double p)
{
if (p <= 0.0 || p >= 1.0)
{
std::stringstream os;
os << "Invalid input argument (" << p
<< "); must be larger than 0 but less than 1.";
throw std::invalid_argument( os.str() );
}

// See article above for explanation of this section.
if (p < 0.5)
{
// F^-1(p) = - G^-1(p)
return -RationalApproximation( sqrt(-2.0*log(p)) );
}
else
{
// F^-1(p) = G^-1(1-p)
return RationalApproximation( sqrt(-2.0*log(1-p)) );
}
}

void demo()
{
std::cout << "\nShow that the NormalCDFInverse function is accurate at \n"
<< "0.05, 0.15, 0.25, ..., 0.95 and at a few extreme values.\n\n";

double p[] =
{
0.0000001,
0.00001,
0.001,
0.05,
0.15,
0.25,
0.35,
0.45,
0.55,
0.65,
0.75,
0.85,
0.95,
0.999,
0.99999,
0.9999999
};

// Exact values computed by Mathematica.
double exact[] =
{
-5.199337582187471,
-4.264890793922602,
-3.090232306167813,
-1.6448536269514729,
-1.0364333894937896,
-0.6744897501960817,
-0.38532046640756773,
-0.12566134685507402,
0.12566134685507402,
0.38532046640756773,
0.6744897501960817,
1.0364333894937896,
1.6448536269514729,
3.090232306167813,
4.264890793922602,
5.199337582187471
};

double maxerror = 0.0;
int numValues = sizeof(p)/sizeof(double);
std::cout << "p, exact CDF inverse, computed CDF inverse, diff\n\n";
std::cout << std::setprecision(7);
for (int i = 0; i < numValues; ++i)
{
double computed = NormalCDFInverse(p[i]);
double error = exact[i] - computed;
std::cout << p[i] << ", " << exact[i] << ", "
<< computed << ", " << error << "\n";         if (fabs(error) > maxerror)
maxerror = fabs(error);
}

std::cout << "\nMaximum error: " << maxerror << "\n\n";
}

int main()
{
demo();
return 0;
}
```

The code is based on an algorithm given in Handbook of Mathematical Functions by Abramowitz and Stegun.

This code is in the public domain. Do whatever you want to with it, no strings attached.

Other versions: C#, Python