Here’s a quick demonstration of a connection between the Fibonacci sequence and geometric sequences.
The famous Fibonacci sequence starts out 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, … The first two terms are both 1, then each subsequent terms is the sum of the two preceding terms.
A generalized Fibonacci sequence can start with any two numbers and then apply the rule that subsequent terms are defined as the sum of their two predecessors. For example, if we start with 3 and 4, we get the sequence 3, 4, 7, 11, 18, 29, …
Let φ be the golden ratio, the positive solution to the equation 1 + x = x2. Let φ’ be the conjugate golden ratio, the negative solution to the same quadratic equation. Then
φ = (1 + √ 5)/2
φ’ = (1 – √ 5)/2.
Now let’s look at a generalized Fibonacci sequence starting with 1 and φ. Then our terms are 1, φ, 1 + φ, 1 + 2φ, 2 + 3φ, 3 + 5φ, … Let’s see whether we can simplify this sequence.
Now 1 + φ = φ2 because of the quadratic equation φ satisfies. That tells us the third term equals φ2. So our series starts out 1, φ, φ2. This is looking like a geometric sequence. Could the fourth term be φ3? In fact, it is. Since the fourth term is the sum of the second and third terms, it equals φ +φ2 = φ(1 + φ) = φ(φ2) = φ3. You can continue this line of reasoning to prove that the generalized Fibonacci sequence starting with 1 and φ is in fact the geometric sequence 1, φ, φ2, φ3, …
Now start a generalized Fibonacci sequence with φ’. Because φ’ is also a solution to 1 + x = x2, it follows that the sequence 1, φ’, 1 + φ’, 1 + 2φ’, 2 + 3φ’, … equals the geometric sequence 1, φ’, (φ’)2, (φ’)3, …