The IQ Test That AI Can’t Pass

Large language models have recently achieved remarkable test scores on well-known academic and professional exams (see, e.g., [1], p. 6). On such tests, these models are at times said to reach human-level performance. However, there is one test that humans can pass but every AI method known to have been tried has abysmally failed.

The Abstraction and Reasoning Corpus (ARC) benchmark [2] was developed by François Chollet to measure intelligence in performing tasks never or rarely seen before. We all do tasks something like this every day, like making a complicated phone call to correct a mailing address. The test is composed of image completion problems similar to Raven’s Progressive Matrices but more complex. Given images A, B and C, one must identify the image D such that the relationship “A is to B as C is to D” holds. Sometimes several examples of the A:B relationship are given.

The problem is hard because the relationship patterns between A and B that humans could easily identify (for example, image shrinking, rotating, folding, recoloring, etc.) might be many, many different things—more than can easily be trained for. By construction, every problem is qualitatively, unpredictably different, so the common approach of training on the training set doesn’t work. Instead, bonafide reasoning on a new kind of problem for each case is required.

Several competitions with prize money have encouraged progress on the ARC benchmark [3]. In these, each entrant’s algorithm must be tested against an unseen ARC holdout set. The leaderboard for the ARCathon 2023 challenge completed last month shows top score of 30 percent [4]; this is excellent progress on a very hard problem, but far from a perfect score or anything else resembling passing.

Ilya Sutskever has famously warned we shouldn’t bet against deep learning, and perhaps a future LLM will do much better on this benchmark. Others feel a new approach is needed, for example, from the burgeoning field of neurosymbolic methods. In any case, these results show at the present moment in this rapidly progressing field, we don’t seem to be anywhere close to strong forms of AGI, artificial general intelligence.

[1] OpenAI, “GPT-4 Technical Report,” https://cdn.openai.com/papers/gpt-4.pdf

[2] François Chollet, “On the Measure of Intelligence,” https://arxiv.org/abs/1911.01547

[3] “Abstraction and Reasoning Challenge,” https://www.kaggle.com/c/abstraction-and-reasoning-challenge

[4] “Winners – Lab42, “https://lab42.global/past-challenges/arcathon-2023/

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