Golden strings and the rabbit constant

Golden strings are analogous to Fibonacci numbers, except one uses concatenation rather than addition.

Start with s1 = “1″ and s2 = “10″. Then define sn = sn-1 + sn-2 where “+” means string concatenation.

The first few golden strings are

  • “1″
  • “10″
  • “101″
  • “10110″
  • “10110101″

The length of sn is Fn+1, the n+1st Fibonacci number. Also, sn contains Fn 1′s and Fn-1 0′s. (Source: The Glorious Golden Ratio).

If we interpret the sn as the fractional part of a binary number, the sequence converges to the rabbit constant R = 0.7098034428612913…

It turns out that R is related to the golden ratio φ by

R = \sum_{i=1}^\infty 2^{-\lfloor i \phi \rfloor}

where ⌊i φ⌋ is the largest integer no greater than iφ.

Here’s a little Python code to print out the first few golden strings and an approximation to the rabbit constant.

from sympy.mpmath import mp, fraction

a = "1"
b = "10"
for i in range(10):
    b, a = b+a, b
    print(b)

n = len(b)
mp.dps = n
denom = 2**n
num = int(b, 2)

rabbit = fraction(num, denom)
print(rabbit)

Note that the code sets the number of decimal places, mp.dps, to the length of the string b. That’s because it takes up to n decimal places to exactly represent a rational number with denominator 2n.

Related posts:

Oscillating Fibonacci ratios
Recognizing numbers

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2 comments on “Golden strings and the rabbit constant
  1. Skip Cave says:

    The rabbit constant calculation in the J language:

    0.5#.|.0,;(;;{.)^:(6) 1;0
    0.709803

    written by Raul Miller @ forums.jsoftware.com

  2. Edward Kmett says:

    In Haskell:

    gold = “1″:”10″:zipWith (++) (tail gold) gold