# Logarithms yearning to be free

I got an evaluation copy of The Best Writing on Mathematics 2021 yesterday. One article jumped out as I was skimming the table of contents: A Zeroth Power Is Often a Logarithm Yearning to Be Free by Sanjoy Mahajan. Great title.

There are quite a few theorems involving powers that have an exceptional case that involves a logarithm. The author opens with the example of finding the antiderivative of xn. When n ≠ -1 the antiderivative is another power function, but when n = -1 it’s a logarithm.

Another example that the author mentions is that the limit of power means as the power goes to 0 is the geometric mean. i.e. the exponential of the mean of the logarithms of the arguments.

I tried to think of other examples where this pattern pops up, and I thought of a couple related to entropy.

## q-logarithm entropy

The definition of q-logarithm entropy takes Mahajan’s idea and runs it backward, turning a logarithm into a power. As I wrote about here,

The natural logarithm is given by

and we can generalize this to the q-logarithm by defining

And so ln1 = ln.

Then q-logarithm entropy is just Shannon entropy with natural logarithm replaced by q-logarithm.

## Rényi entropy

Quoting from this post,

If a discrete random variable X has n possible values, where the ith outcome has probability pi, then the Rényi entropy of order α is defined to be

for 0 ≤ α ≤ ∞. In the case α = 1 or ∞ this expression means the limit as α approaches 1 or ∞ respectively.

When α = 1 we get the more familiar Shannon entropy:

In this case there’s already a logarithm in the definition, but it moves inside the parentheses in the limit.

And if you rewrite

pα

as

p pα-1

then as the exponent in pα-1 goes to zero, we have a logarithm yearning to be free.

## One thought on “Logarithms yearning to be free”

1. Sean Raleigh

Another simple one is the Box-Cox transformation.