# Plastic powers

Last week I wrote a blog post showing that powers of the golden ratio are nearly integers. Specifically, the distance from φn to the nearest integer decreases exponentially as n increases. Several people pointed out that the golden constant is a Pisot number, the general class of numbers whose powers are exponentially close to integers.

The so-called plastic constant P is another Pisot number, in fact the smallest Pisot number. P is the real root of x3x – 1 = 0. Because P is a Pisot number, we know that its powers will be close to integers, just like powers of the golden ratio, but the way they approach integers is more interesting. The convergence is slower and less regular.

We will the first few powers of P, first looking at the distance to the nearest integer on a linear scale, then looking at the absolute value of the distance on a logarithmic scale.  As a reminder, here’s what the corresponding plots looked like for the golden ratio.  ## 2 thoughts on “Plastic powers”

1. Mario Pacek

Every nth Lucas number (2, 1, 3, 4, 7, …) is a sum of nth power of golden ratio and its negative nth power multiplied by (-1) to the nth. L(n) = Phi^n + phi^ (-n) . For instance: L(3) = 4 and adequately Phi^3 + phi^(-3) = 4. Consequently, with growing n value the second component the above sum vanishes and the first term asymptotically approaches the adequate Lucas number.
Regards,
PG13
BTW, the ratio of subsequent Lucas numbers L(n)/L(n-1) converges to the Golden Ratio.

2. Ralph Kelsey

Thought on phi, the Golden Ratio.
I once argued (in “Shtetl Optimized”) that phi turns up a lot because it is one of the 20 simplest (complex) algebraic numbers, as follows:

Assign a rank(x) to x as rank(x) = deg(x) + coefs(x), where

deg(x) = minimal degree as an algebraic number: 0 for integers, 1 for rational, 2 for square roots, etc.

coefs(x) = absolute sum of integer coefficients in minimal polynomial for x.
rank(x) = deg(x) + coefs(x)

In order of rank, with pm = plus or minus, and the total at the end:
rank = 2: 1x + 0 = 0; (1)
rank = 3: 1x + pm 1 = 0; (2)
rank = 4: 1x + pm 2 = 0; 2x +pm 1 = 0; 1x^2 + 0x +1 = 0 (5)
rank = 5: 1x + pm 3 = 0, 1x^2 + 0x + pm2 = 0; 3x + pm1 = 0, 1x^2 + 0x +pm 2 = 0, 1x^2 +pm 1x +pm 1 = 0 (12)
The last equation: x^2 – x – 1 = 0 gives phi. with a total of 20 numbers through rank 5.

Do you think this ranking for algebraic numbers is a useful idea?
Ralph