Productive productivity

I skimmed Automate Your Busywork the other day and realized I already have automated most of my busywork. I don’t have a lot of repetitive tasks to do, and I’ve written scripts to streamline most of the repetitive tasks I do have.

The scripts that have been most useful are of zero interest to anyone else because they are very specific to my work. I imagine that’s true of most scripts ever written.

Here are a couple things that have improved my productivity that may be of some general interest.

I found it helpful to remap a few keys so I can have cross platform muscle memory. That is, the same keys do the same thing whether I’m using Mac, Windows, or Linux. (And to some extent Emacs, which is kinda like its own operating system.) And by the same keys, I mean the same key positions, not the same key labels.

I’ve also found it helpful do ask much as practical with plain text files and tools designed to work with plain text files. Plain text files are small, easy to search, and amenable to version control. They are robust and transparent. And they’re interoperable. I’ve found, for example, that even if a task is easier to do in Microsoft Word than in LaTeX, it’s better for my long-term productivity to use LaTeX.

Both of these are rather pedestrian tips, not photogenic or technically impressive, but useful, at least in my experience. And I suspect that the more likely a tip is to catch your attention when surfing the web, the less likely it is to be genuinely useful. Of course your mileage may vary.

Small-scale automation


Saving keystrokes is overrated, but maintaining concentration is underrated.

This post is going to look at automating small tasks in order to maintain concentration, not to save time.

If a script lets you easily carry out some ancillary task without taking your concentration off your main task, that’s a big win. Maybe the script only saves you five seconds, but it could save you from losing a train of thought.

If your goal in writing a script is to preserve concentration, that script has to be effortless to run. It’s worth taking a few minutes to search for a script that is going to save you an hour. But if the purpose of a script is to preserve your state of flow, having to search for it defeats the purpose.

Remembering what you’ve written

I’ve often said to myself “I’ve had to do this task several times. I should automate it!” Good idea, except I couldn’t quickly find the code later when I needed it.

I’ve heard many people say you should automate repetitive tasks; I’ve never heard anyone discuss the problem of remembering what you’ve automated and how to invoke it. Maybe there’s less discussion of the memory problem because the solution is personal. It depends, for instance, on what tools you use and what you find memorable.

One suggestion would be to periodically review what you’ve written, say once a month [1]. Maybe you’ve put useful aliases in your shell configuration file. Skimming that config file occasionally could help you remember what’s there. If you have a directory where you keep custom scripts, it could help to browse that directory once in a while. It helps if there aren’t too many places you need to look, which leads to the next section.

Tool priorities

It would also help to minimize the number of tools you use, or at least the number of tools you customize.

And even with a very minimal tool set, it helps to have a primary emphasis on one of those tools. For example, maybe your work environment consists mostly of a shell, a programming language, and an editor. When it’s not obvious which tool to pick, are you going to write a shell script, a program, or an editor extension? By picking one tool as your default, you get better at that tool, accumulate more sample code for that tool, and have fewer contexts to explore when you’re looking for something you’ve written.


[1] A long time ago I heard someone say he reads documentation ever Friday afternoon. I did that for a while and recommend it. Maybe set aside a few minutes each Friday afternoon to review and tweak config files. If you don’t get through everything, pick up next week where you left off.

Self-documenting software

programmer using a laptop in the dark

The electricity went out for a few hours recently, and because the power was out, the internet was out. I was trying to do a little work on my laptop, but I couldn’t do what I intended to do because I needed a network connection to access some documentation. I keep offline documentation for just this situation, but the information I needed wasn’t in my local files. Or maybe it was there, but I gave up too soon.

This made me think of the Emacs slogan that it is a self-documenting editor. It’s also a very old editor, with roots going back to the 1970s. Originally the phrase “self-documenting” contrasted with software that only had paper documentation. Now it’s common for software to have online documentation, but most software still isn’t self-documenting in the way that Emacs is. The documentation for Emacs is extensive, well-written, and thoroughly integrated with the editor.

Most of the software I use has local documentation, but the documentation is more difficult to use than doing a web search. Maybe the local documentation would be easier to use if I invested more time learning how to use it, but this investment has to be repeated for each application; every application has its own documentation system.

The best approach may be to commit to a small number of tools and learn how each one’s documentation works. I’ve done the former but wish I’d put more work into the latter sooner.

Years ago I had gotten to the point that I was using a menagerie of different software applications, none of which I knew well. Following the advice to use the best tool for the job lead to too many tools for wide variety of jobs. I determined that sometimes using a sub-optimal tool would be optimal overall if it allowed me to switch tools less often.

What I didn’t do at the time, but I’d recommend now, is to also to dig into each tool’s documentation system. A web search will always be faster in the moment than learning how to use an arcane help system. (More on this here.) But in the long run, becoming fluent in the local help systems of your most important applications is more efficient, and leads to serendipitous discoveries. It also helps you preserve a state of flow by reducing context switches.

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Photo by Valeriy Khan on Unsplash

Cross platform muscle memory

I’ve mostly used Windows and Linux for the last several years. When I needed to get a new laptop recently I got a MacBook Pro. I’ve used a Mac before, but it’s been a while, and so I’m starting over.

I can move between Windows and Linux and almost forget what OS I’m using because keyboard shortcuts work the same way. But MacOS is substantially different. I’m trying to find a way to remap the modifier keys on my Mac so that my muscle memory still works on the new laptop.

There are two difficulties: where the keys are located, and what the keys do. I’ll explain why I distinguish these.

I use Emacs, which means I use the Control key (⌃) a lot. So the first thing I did was swap Caps Lock and Control. Now when I use the-key-formerly-known-as-caps-lock it behaves as I expect, on Linux, Windows, and Mac. Similarly, I swapped the Option (⌥) and Command (⌘) keys so that the-key-next-to-the-spacebar acts the same on all three operating systems.

But when I’m not using Emacs, there’s a problem. The Control key is where I expect it, but the Control key doesn’t do what I expect. I expect, for example, Control-C to copy and Control-V to paste. But on Mac, Command-C copies and Command-C pastes. In general, the Command key on a Mac does what the Control key does on Windows and Linux.

I’m trying to customize my OS configurations and habits in order to bring my use of three operating systems closer together. Here’s what I’ve come up with so far, and I welcome your suggestions.

Now the key in the lower left corner of the keyboard acts the same across operating systems. Holding down that key and pressing C copies etc. On my Mac, this key is labeled with a globe icon, and on my other machines it’s labeled Ctrl. But I type by feel, not by sight, and when I reach for this key it does what I expect. However, I do have to keep in mind that the functionality of the Command key on MacOS is not exactly the same as the functionality of the Control key on Windows and Linux.

Now on Linux I have two left Control keys, one in the bottom left corner as discussed above, and one labeled “Caps Lock.” I could use either one anywhere, but I’m getting in the habit of using the former Caps Lock as the control key when using Emacs and using the key in the lower left as the control key everywhere else. That way my keyboard mostly does what I expect across platforms.


There’s a simple pattern I didn’t realize until after I posted this article:

The Control key on a Mac works like the Control key in Emacs, and the Command key on a Mac works like the Control key on Windows.

For example, Control-B moves backward, as in Emacs, and Command-B makes text bold, like Control-B on Windows.

The settings described above work well with this pattern. Mac has one Unix-like control key (⌃) and one Windows-like control key (⌘).

Better parts, worse system

There’s a rule of systems thinking that improving part of a system can often make the system as a whole worse.

One example of this is Braess’ Paradox that adding roads can make traffic worse, and closing roads can improve traffic.

Another example is the paradox of enrichment: Increasing the food available to an ecosystem may lead to instability, and even to extinction.

Richard Hamming put it this way in what he called the first rule of systems engineering:

If you optimize the components, you’ll probably ruin the system performance.

For more variations on this principle, see this Twitter thread.

I’ve been thinking about this lately in regard to software tools. If you’re just starting out and ask around for the best way to do this and that, you might get individual bits of good advice that add up to bad advice.

“You’re still using X? You should be using Y. Y’s better.”

When someone says Y is “better” they probably mean that it has more features. It may also be objectively better by several other criteria. But that doesn’t mean it’s better for you, at this point in time, given your experience, your temperament, and your project.

The Dreyfus model of skill acquisition says that beginners want context-free rules: Y is better than X. That’s an understandable desire, and people are all too willing to give context-free advice. But context matters. A lot.

Yesterday I needed to do a little search-and-replace text munging, join two data sets, and compute some basic statistics. I thought about how I could go off on tangents for each task, using the best tool for each task individually, and take forever to get my job done. Instead, I cobbled something together quickly at a command line, with each step being far from the most general solution.

If you choose the best (i.e. biggest) tool for each task, you’ll get affirmation, or at least avoid criticism, for each choice. And you’ll likely end up with an unwieldy hodgepodge of tools, none of which you’re confident in using. If instead you think carefully about your abilities and your needs, you’ll gradually assemble a collection of tools that work together for you,  making you more confident and productive.

Offline documentation

It’s simpler to search the web than to search software-specific documentation. You can just type your query into a search engine and not have to be bothered by the differences in offline documentation systems for different software. But there are a couple disadvantages.

First, the result may not be that relevant. For example, maybe you have a question about LaTeX typesetting and you get back results about rubber. And even if the result is relevant, it might not be accurate or up-to-date.

Second, you might not always be online. You might lose your internet connection, or you might deliberately stay offline for a block of time in order to concentrate better.

A convenient way to grab online documentation for a lot of software packages is to use Dash for macOS or Zeal on Windows and Linux.

If you use a particular piece of software a lot, you probably want to learn how to use its native documentation system. It’s hard to do this for lots of different tools, hence the popularity of the generic web search, but it’s worthwhile for a small number of high priority tools.

Technological boundary layer

The top sides of your ceiling fan blades are dusty because of a boundary layer effect. When the blades spin, a thin layer of air above the blades moves with the blades. That’s why the fan doesn’t throw off the dust.

A mathematical model may have very different behavior in two large regions, with a thin region of rapid transition between the two, such as the transition between the ceiling fan blade and the circulating air in the room. That transition region is called a boundary layer. In this post I want to use the term boundary layer metaphorically.

Some information you use so frequently that you memorize it without trying. And some information you use so infrequently that it’s not worth memorizing it.

There’s not much need to deliberately memorize how software tools work because that information mostly falls into one of the two categories above. Either you use the tool so often that you remember how to use it, or you use the tool so rarely that it’s best to look up how to use it just-in-time.

But there’s a thin region between these two categories: things you use often enough that it’s annoying to keep looking up how to use them, but not so often that you remember the details. In this technological boundary layer, it might be worthwhile to deliberately memorize and periodically review how things work. Maybe this takes the form of flashcards [1] or exercises.

This boundary layer must be kept very small. If you spend more than a few minutes a day on it, you’re probably taking on too much. YMMV.

Things may move in and out of your technological boundary layer over time. Maybe you use or review something so much that it moves into long-term memory. Or maybe you use it less often and decide to let it slip into things you look up as needed.

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[1] Paper or electronic? In my experience, making paper flashcards helps me memorize things, even if I don’t review them. But I’ve also used the Anki software before and found it helpful.

Just-in-case revisited

Just-in-time learning means learning something just when you need it. The alternative is just-in-case, learning something in case you need it. I discussed this in an earlier post, and today I’d like to add a little to that discussion.

There are some things you need to know (or at least be familiar with) before you have a chance to use them. Here’s a variation on that idea: some things you need to have practiced before you need them in order to overcome an effort barrier.

Suppose you tell yourself that you’ll learn to use Photoshop or GIMP when you need to. Then you need to edit a photo. Faced with the prospect of learning either of these software packages, you might decide that the photo in question looks good enough after all.

There are things that in principle you could learn just-in-time, though in practice this is not psychologically feasible. The mental “activation energy” is too high. Some things you need to practice before hand, not because you couldn’t look them up when needed, but because they would be too daunting to learn when needed.

Related post: Bicycle skills

Simultaneous projects

I said something to my wife this evening to the effect that it’s best for employees to have one or at most two projects at a time. Two is good because you can switch off when you’re tired of one project or if you’re waiting on input. But with three or more projects you spend a lot of time task switching.

She said “But …” and I immediately knew what she was thinking. I have a lot more than two projects going on. In fact, I would have to look at my project tracker to know exactly how many projects I have going on right now. How does this reconcile with my statement that two projects is optimal?

Unless you’re doing staff augmentation contracting, consulting work is substantially different from salaried work. For one thing, projects tend to be smaller and better defined.

Also consultants, at least in my experience, spend a lot of time waiting on clients, especially when the clients are lawyers. So you take on more work than you could handle if everyone wanted your attention at once. At least you work up to that if you can. You balance the risk of being overwhelmed against the risk of not having enough work to do.

Working for several clients in a single day is exhausting, but that’s usually not necessary. My ideal is to do work for one or two clients each day, even if I have a lot of clients who are somewhere between initial proposal and final invoice.

Make boring work harder

I was searching for something this morning and ran across several pages where someone blogged about software they wrote to help write their dissertations. It occurred to me that this is a pattern: I’ve seen a lot of writing tools that came out of someone writing a dissertation or some other book.

The blog posts leave the impression that the tools required more time to develop than they would save. This suggests that developing the tools was a form of moral compensation, procrastinating by working on something that feels like it’s making a contribution to what you ought to be doing.

Even so, developing the tools may have been a good idea. As with many things in life, it makes more sense when you ask “Compared to what“? If the realistic alternative to futzing around with scripts was to write another chapter of the dissertation, then developing the tools was not the best use of time, assuming they don’t actually save more time than they require.

But if the realistic alternative was binge watching some TV series, then writing the tools may have been a very good use of time. Any time the tools save is profit if the time that went into developing them would otherwise have been wasted.

Software developers are often criticized for developing tools rather than directly developing the code they’re paid to write. Sometimes these tools really are a good investment. But even when they’re not, they may be better than the realistic alternative. They may take time away from Facebook rather than time away from writing production code.

Another advantage to tool building, aside from getting some benefit from time that otherwise would have been wasted, is that it builds momentum. If you can’t bring yourself to face the dissertation, but you can bring yourself to write a script for writing your dissertation, you might feel more like facing the dissertation afterward.

Related post: Automate to save mental energy, not time