R resources

This is the third in my weekly series of posts pointing out resources on this site. This week’s topic is R.

See also posts tagged Rstats.

I started the Twitter account RLangTip and handed it over the folks at Revolution Analytics.

Last week: Emacs resources

Next week: C++ resources

Let me know if you’d like help making R part of your environment.

Example of unit testing R code with testthat

Here’s a little example of using Hadley Wickham’s testthat package for unit testing R code. You can read more about testthat here.

The function below computes the real roots of a quadratic. All that really matters for our purposes is that the function can return 0, 1, or 2 numbers and it could raise an error.

    real.roots <- function(a, b, c)
    {
        if (a == 0.)
            stop("Leading term cannot be zero")

        d = b*b - 4*a*c # discriminant

        if (d < 0)
           rr = c()
        else if (d == 0)
           rr = c( -b/(2*a) )
        else
            rr = c( (-b - sqrt(d))/(2*a), 
                    (-b + sqrt(d))/(2*a)  )

        return(rr)
    }

To test this code with testthat we create another file for tests. The name of the file should begin with test so that testthat can recognize it as a file of test code. So let name the file containing the code above real_roots.R and the file containing its tests test_real_roots.R.

The test file needs to read in the file being tested.

    source("real_roots.R")

Now let’s write some tests for the case of a quadratic with two real roots.

    test_that("Distinct roots", {

        roots <- real.roots(1, 7, 12)

        expect_that( roots, is_a("numeric") )
        expect_that( length(roots), equals(2) )
        expect_that( roots[1] < roots[2], is_true() )
    })

This tests that we get back two numbers and that they are sorted in increasing order.

Next we find the roots of (x + 3000)2 = x2 + 6000x + 9000000. We’ll test whether we get back -3000 as the only root. In general you can’t expect to get an exact answer, though in this case we do since the root is an integer. But we’ll show in the next example how to test for equality with a given tolerance.

    test_that("Repeated root", {

        roots <- real.roots(1, 6000, 9000000)

        expect_that( length(roots), equals(1) )

        expect_that( roots, equals(-3000) )

        # Test whether ABSOLUTE error is within 0.1 
        expect_that( roots, equals(-3000.01, tolerance  = 0.1) )

        # Test whether RELATIVE error is within 0.1
        # To test relative error, set 'scale' equal to expected value.
        # See base R function all.equal for optional argument documentation.
        expect_equal( roots, -3001, tolerance  = 0.1, scale=-3001) 
    })

To show how to test code that should raise an error, we’ll find the roots of 2x + 3, which isn’t a quadratic. Notice that you can test whether any error is raised or you can test whether the error message matches a given regular expression.

    test_that("Polynomial must be quadratic", {

        # Test for ANY error                     
        expect_that( real.roots(0, 2, 3), throws_error() )

        # Test specifically for an error string containing "zero"
        expect_that( real.roots(0, 2, 3), throws_error("zero") )

        # Test specifically for an error string containing "zero" or "Zero" using regular expression
        expect_that( real.roots(0, 2, 3), throws_error("[zZ]ero") )
    })

Finally, here are a couple tests that shouldn’t pass.

    test_that("Bogus tests", {

        x <- c(1, 2, 3)

        expect_that( length(x), equals(2.7) )
        expect_that( x, is_a("data.frame") )
    })

To run the tests, you can run test_dir or test_file. If you are at the R command line and your working directory is the directory containing the two files above, you could run the tests with test_dir("."). In this case we have only one file of test code, but if we had more test files test_dir would find them, provided the file names begin with test.

* * *

Related: Help integrating R into your environment

Basics of Sweave and Pweave

Sweave is a tool for embedding R code in a LaTeX file. Pweave is an analogous tool for Python. By putting your code in your document rather than the results of running your code somewhere else, results are automatically recomputed when inputs change. This is especially useful with graphs: rather than including an image into your document, you include the code to create the image.

To use either Sweave or Pweave, you create a LaTeX file and include source code inside. A code block begins with <<>>= and ends with @ on a line by itself. By default, code blocks appear in the LaTeX output. You can start a code block with <<echo=FALSE>>= to execute code without echoing its source. In Pweave you can also use <% and %> to mark a code block that executes but does not echo. You might want to do this at the top of a file, for example, for import statements.

Sweave echos code like the R command line, with > for the command prompt. Pweave does not display the Python >>> command line prompt by default, though it will if you use the option term=TRUE in the start of your code block.

In Sweave, you can use Sexpr to inline a little bit of R code. For example, $x = Sexpr{sqrt(2)}$ will produce x = 1.414…. You can also use Sexpr to reference variables defined in previous code blocks. The Pweave analog uses <%= and %>. The previous example would be $x = <%= sqrt(2) %>$.

You can include a figure in Sweave or Pweave by beginning a code block with <<fig=TRUE, echo=FALSE>>= or with echo=TRUE if you want to display the code that produces the figure. With Sweave you don’t need to do anything else with your file. With Pweave you need to add usepackage{graphicx} at the top.

To process an Sweave file foo.Rnw, run Sweave("foo.Rnw") from the R command prompt. To process a Pweave file foo.Pnw, run Pweave -f tex foo.Pnw from the shell. Either way you get a LaTeX file that you can then compile to a PDF.

Here are sample Sweave and Pweave files. First Sweave:

\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}

Invisible code that sets the value of the variable $a$.

<<<echo=FALSE>>=
a <- 3.14
@

Visible code that sets $b$ and squares it.

<<bear, echo=TRUE>>=
b <- 3.15
b*b
@

Calling R inline: $\sqrt{2} = Sexpr{sqrt(2)}$

Recalling the variable $a$ set above: $a = Sexpr{a}$.

Here's a figure:

<<fig=TRUE, echo=FALSE>>=
x <- seq(0, 6*pi, length=200)
plot(x, sin(x))
@

\end{document}

And now Pweave:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\begin{document}

<%
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from numpy import pi, linspace, sqrt, sin
%>

Invisible code that sets the value of the variable $a$.

<<echo=FALSE>>=
a = 3.14
@

Visible code that sets $b$ and squares it.

<<term=True>>=
b = 3.15
print b*b
@

Calling Python inline: $\sqrt{2} = <%= sqrt(2) %>$

Recalling the variable $a$ set above: $a = <%= a %>$.

Here's a figure:

<<fig=True, echo=False>>=
x = linspace(0, 6*pi, 200)
plt.plot(x, sin(x))
plt.show()
@

\end{document}

Related links:

 

R without Hadley Wickham

Tim Hopper asked on Twitter today:

#rstats programming without @hadleywickham’s libraries is like ________ without _________.

Some of the replies were:

  • (skydiving, a parachute)
  • (gouging your own eyes out, NULL)
  • (dentistry, anesthesia)
  • (shaving, a razor)
  • (Internet shopping, credit card)

Clearly there’s a lot of love out there for Hadley Wickham’s R packages. I’m familiar with his ggplot2 graphics package, and it’s quite impressive. I need to look at his other packages as well.

Beta inequalities in R

Someone asked me yesterday for R code to compute the probability P(X > Y + δ) where X and Y are independent beta random variables. I’m posting the solution here in case it benefits anyone else.

For an example of why you might want to compute this probability, see A Bayesian view of Amazon resellers.

Let X be a Beta(a, b) random variable and Y be a Beta(c, d) random variable. Denote PDFs by f and CDFs by F. Then the probability we need is

P(X > Y + \delta) &=& \int_\delta^1 \int_0^{x-\delta} f_X(x) \, f_Y(y)\, dy,dx \ &=& \int_\delta^1 f_X(x)\, F_Y(x-\delta) \, dx

If you just need to compute this probability a few times, here is a desktop application to compute random inequalities.

But if you need to do this computation repeated inside R code, you could use the following.

beta.ineq <- function(a, b, c, d, delta)
{
    integrand <- function(x) { dbeta(x, a, b)*pbeta(x-delta, c, d) }
    integrate(integrand, delta, 1, rel.tol=1e-4)$value
}

The code is as good or as bad as R’s integrate function. It’s probably accurate enough as long as none of the parameters a, b, c, or d are near zero. When one or more of these parameters is small, the integral is harder to compute numerically.

There is no error checking in the code above. A more robust version would verify that all parameters are positive and that delta is less than 1.

Here’s the solution to the corresponding problem for gamma random variables, provided delta is zero: A support one-liner.

And here is a series of blog posts on random inequalities.

Click to learn more about Bayesian statistics consulting

 

Installing R and Rcpp

Almost exactly a year ago, I wrote about my frustration calling C++ from R. Maybe this will become an annual event because I’m back at it.

This time my experience was more pleasant. I was able to install Rcpp on an Ubuntu virtual machine and run example 2.2 from the Rcpp FAQ once I upgraded R to the latest version. I wrote up some notes on the process of installing the latest version of R and Rcpp on Ubuntu.

I have not yet been able to run Rcpp on Windows.

Update: Thanks to Dirk Eddelbuettel for pointing out in the comments that you can install Rcpp from the shell rather than from inside R by running sudo apt-get install r-cran-rcpp. With this approach, I was able to install Rcpp without having to upgrade R first.

Machine Learning for Hackers

Drew Conway and John Myles White have a new book out, Machine Learning for Hackers (ISBN 1449303714). As the name implies, the emphasis is on exploration rather than mathematical theory. Lots of code, no equations.

If you’re looking for a hands-on introduction to machine learning, maybe as a prelude to or complement to a more theoretical text, you’ll enjoy this book. Even if you’re not all that interested in machine learning, you might enjoy the examples, such as how a computer could find patterns in senatorial voting records and twitter networks. And R users will find examples of using advanced language features to solve practical problems.

For daily tips on data science, follow @DataSciFact on Twitter.

DataSciFact twitter icon

Comparing R to smoking

Francois Pinard comparing the R programming language to smoking:

Using R is a bit akin to smoking. The beginning is difficult, one may get headaches and even gag the first few times. But in the long run, it becomes pleasurable and even addictive. Yet, deep down, for those willing to be honest, there is something not fully healthy in it.

I’ve never gotten to the point that I would call using R pleasurable.

Quote via Stats in the Wild

Related posts

Running Python and R inside Emacs

Emacs org-mode lets you manage blocks of source code inside a text file. You can execute these blocks and have the output display in your text file. Or you could export the file, say to HTML or PDF, and show the code and/or the results of executing the code.

Here I’ll show some of the most basic possibilities. For much more information, see  orgmode.org. And for the use of org-mode in research, see A Multi-Language Computing Environment for Literate Programming and Reproducible Research.

Source code blocks go between lines of the form

    #+begin_src
    #+end_src

On the #+begin_src line, specify the programming language. Here I’ll demonstrate Python and R, but org-mode currently supports C++, Java, Perl, etc. for a total of 35 languages.

Suppose we want to compute √42 using R.

    #+begin_src R
    sqrt(42)
    #+end_src

If we put the cursor somewhere in the code block and type C-c C-c, org-mode will add these lines:

    #+results:
    : 6.48074069840786

Now suppose we do the same with Python:

    #+begin_src python
    from math import sqrt
    sqrt(42)
    #+end_src

This time we get disappointing results:

    #+results:
    : None

What happened? The org-mode manual explains:

… code should be written as if it were the body of such a function. In particular, note that Python does not automatically return a value from a function unless a return statement is present, and so a ‘return’ statement will usually be required in Python.

If we change sqrt(42) to return sqrt(42) then we get the same result that we got when using R.

By default, evaluating a block of code returns a single result. If you want to see the output as if you were interactively using Python from the REPL, you can add :results output :session following the language name.

    #+begin_src python :results output :session
    print "There are %d hours in a week." % (7*24)
    2**10
    #+end_src

This produces the lines

    #+results:
    : There are 168 hours in a week.
    : 1024

Without the :session tag, the second line would not appear because there was no print statement.

I had to do a couple things before I could get the examples above to work. First, I had to upgrade org-mode. The version of org-mode that shipped with Emacs 23.3 was quite out of date. Second, the only language you can run by default is Emacs Lisp. You have to turn on support for other languages in your .emacs file. Here’s the code to turn on support for Python and R.

    (org-babel-do-load-languages
        'org-babel-load-languages '((python . t) (R . t)))

Update: My next post shows how to call code in written in one language from code written in another language.

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